CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
Thibaut translates the opening statement of this section as In obtaining a different (body) (the soul) goes enveloped (by subtle parts of the elements), (as appears from) question and explanation. Badarayana was drawing attention to the question and explanation (problem and proof) session recorded in the previous chapter. It appears that as one goes from one social world or cadre to another he goes enveloped by the basic traits of a commoner. This is a reference to man being the product of the five basic elements, water, earth, fire, air and ether, as is commonly held and his prana or life being related to the five breaths, prana, vyana, samana, apana and udana. (tad antara pratipatta ramhati samparishvakta prasna nirupanabhyam 3-1-1)
The commentator translates the next formula as But on account of (water) consisting of three (elements the soul is enveloped not by water merely; the latter alone is, however mentioned) on account of preponderance. There is no reference to the soul or to water or to the other elements in this formula. Badarayana points out that he did not claim that an individual has only one of the three qualities. Every individual has all the three traits, sattva, rajas and tamas, but he is assigned to a particular class on the basis of the preponderance of a particular trait. (tayatmakatvat tu bhuyastvat 3-1-2)
Thibaut translates the next epigram as And on account of the going of the pranas. (3-1-3) The interpretation that scripture states that when a new body is obtained, the pranas also go (from the old body to the new one) is not a sound one. The teacher was pointing out that even those (pranas) who were at the bare subsistence level were found to be moving from one social cadre to another. The trilateral analysis is applicable not only to the organized society but also to these individuals and they too can migrate from one social cadre or rank to another by acquiring the preponderant trait necessary for acceptance in the new social group. (pranagate ca 3-1-3)
The commentator reads the formula (3-1-4) as If it be said (that the pranas do not go) on account of the scriptural statement as to entering into Agni etc. we deny this on account of the metaphorical nature (of those statements). The students seek explanation on the statement said to have been made in the Vedas that at the time of death speech (vak) and otherpranas enter Agni (fire, in common parlance).
Badarayana rejects such interpretation of the statement, which is but a metaphor. All the pranas, discrete individuals, including the sages whose words (vak) were highly valued were under the jurisdiction of Agni who was in charge of the commonalty and also of the intellectuals in the Vedic social polity. Agni was the designation of the civil judge. (Agni adi gati srute iti cenna bhaktatvat 3-1-4)
Thibaut reads the next formula as If an objection be raised on the ground of (water) not being mentioned in the first fire, we refute it by remarking that just it (viz. water is meant), on the ground of fitness (3-1-5). The discussion on why water (apa) has not been mentioned first and why sraddha was given priority and whether the two meant the same concept is totally irrelevant. Who should be honoured first was determined by the socio-political code but however the individual administrator was not debarred from honouring the one of his choice and bestowing on him special rights.
Pravahana's recommendation in Chhandogya Upanishad (to which Thibaut and other commentators following those of the medieval times have drawn attention to in this context) was with reference to what factor should be attended to first by the administrators and how. Pravahana explained to Gautama that the social cadre (loka) to whose ranks the trainees from the academy (samiti) of the former were sent for higher studies, could be described as one whose teachers were persons who held the rank of civil judges (Agni). Personages who held the rank of Aditya (and belonged to the governing elite) too were contributory teachers there. (They were like samit, the twig used to keep the flame burning.) At first there is smoke, lack of clarity of thought and purpose and then brightness.
Pravahana was using the picture of a sacrifice that went on throughout the day. At the end of the day intellectuals who held the rank of Chandra (Soma) came to give sober counsel. The non-administrators (nakshatras) too came in to guide and their contributions are likened to sparks. These nakshatras could give hints on economy and technology, which were fields mastered by the scholars of the other society. Pravahana was explaining the functions of the royal faculty that had scholars from different social sectors (C.U.5-4-1).
The nobles (devas) tended with sincerity and devotion (sraddha) this royal academy headed by Agni, the chief judicial officer who had jurisdiction over the commonalty and all the subjects of that state of Panchala. From this offering of devoted service arose the king (raja) who was an outstanding, influential and sedate intellectual like Soma (C.U. 5-4-2). (Vide Ch.39 in this work on Pravahanas counsel to Gautama) (prathame sravanaditi cenna ta eva hat upapatte 3-1-5)
Thibaut interprets the next formula (3-1-6) as (Should it be said that souls are not enveloped by water) on account of this not being stated by scripture, we refute the objection on the ground of those who perform ishtis, being understood. It is unsound to bring into discussion here the issue of whether the soul is enveloped by water or not.
Badarayana defended Pravahanas recommendation to the students of his royal academy on the ground that in the larger society every individual was free to honour the leader-patron of his choice. These leaders were later known as ishta-devatas. They were in fact officials of the larger special polity each vested with specific powers. Badarayana wants his students to realise that the new socio-political code, Brahma, did not prescribe uniformity and did not hinder freedom of the individuals and groups to follow their specific orientations. (asrutatvat iti ca ena ishta adikarinam partite 3-1-6)
The commentator reads the next formula (3-1-7) as Or (the souls being the food of the gods is) metaphorical, on account of their not knowing the Self, for thus (Scripture) declares. Such statements as the Vaisyas are the food of kings, the animals are the food of the Vaisyas are not to be taken literally. Who thrives on whose work is the issue raised. No individual can thrive without trying to meet his physical needs has been shown in various instances. It is not sound to hold that the performers of sacrifices are objects of enjoyment for the gods follows from their quality of not knowing their self.
The duties that are prescribed for the members of the different classes and the gains that they would gain by performing those duties do not come under the framework of personal choice. In other words, one was free to decide whom he should honour at the sacrifice but was not free to decide what he should offer to the latter. Freedom of the individual was thus circumscribed. The offering was to accord with traditional practices. (bhaktam va anatmavitvat tatha hi darsayate 3-1-7)
Thibaut interprets the next formula (3-1-8) as On the passing away of the works (the soul re-descends) with a remainder, according to scripture and Smrti, as it went (i.e. passing through the same stations) and not thus (i.e. in the inverse order). The commentator says that scripture states that the souls of those who perform sacrifices and the like, rise on the road leading through smoke and so on, to the sphere of the moon, and when they have done with the enjoyment of the fruits of their works again descend, having dwelt there. This was not the view of the Srutis (of the Vedic times) or of the Smrtis (of the post-Vedic times). It is to be noted that the commentators of the medieval and later times have not had a correct appreciation of what Chandraloka signified.
Chhandogya Upanishad (5-10) (which he cites without appreciating its intent correctly) presents a highly rational approach to the issue of social ascent and social descent caused by ones actions. These have nothing to do with sacrifices. Pravahana told Gautama that the householders of the plains and scholars of the forest who understood the importance of devotion and sincerity and were engaged in tapas (endeavour to find out the best means for the development of the personality of the individual) should follow the path of positive enlightenment. [Vide Ch.39 for a critique on the recommendations of Pravahana with respect to the northern path (devayana) and the southern path (pitryana).]
The two verses (Ch.U. 5-10-7,8) need attention as they bring out the bases on which the classification of the commonalty was effected during the times of the early Upanishads. Those persons whose conduct in this social world has been pleasant will soon be born to pleasant (ramaniya) women. But those persons whose conduct here has been stinking (kapuya) will soon have despicable birth to dogs or pigs or will be born to Chandalas.
Those persons who do not seek to attain the level of the intellectual aristocrats (devayana) or to get the counsel of the experienced senior citizens (pitryana) belong to the social periphery and do not have permanent abodes are referred to as bhutas. They are constantly moving and are called Kshudras (unimportant particles like the dust in the air). They are born to only die. (They have no achievements to their credit.) Their status (sthanam) is third, lower than that of the two mentioned above, those who go by the path of the nobles (devayana) or by the path suggested by the senior citizens (pitryana).
Badarayana was presenting succinctly the theme of the rise and fall of the intellectual. Brahma-sutra presented in terse epigrams the principles that were to be followed by the editors of the Upanishads while presenting the features of the ideal social polity. (Krtatyayenusayavan drshtasmrtibhyam yathetamanevam ca 3-1-8)
Thibaut translates the next formula (3-1-9) as Should it be objected that on account of conduct (the assumption of a remainder is not needed), we deny this because (the scriptural expression conduct) is meant to connote (the remainder); so Karshnarjini thinks. The commentator says that the quality of the new birth depends on carana or caritra, conduct and not on anusaya, work from remaining requited work. The latter, that is, some aspects of work are not taken into account while determining the value of ones present work and punishing or rewarding him for that.
This has no relevance to the theme discussed by Badarayana. He was drawing attention to the views of the school of Krshna Arjuna. It held that the movement northwards in the case of devayana and southwards in the case of pitryana were not to be objected to as they had specific additional characteristics connoting the prescribed conduct of the individuals concerned.
This seems to be a reference to the explanation given by Krshna in his counsel to Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gita on these two movements. (The verses of the Bhagavad-Gita were composed by Krshna and narrated to his student in the presence of Vyasa. Romaharshana, a colleague of Vaishampayana is said to have sung them.) He contrasts the two paths, the one that would take his disciple to a goal from which there is no return and the other that would bring him back to the present life, a second birth, after a brief acquaintance with an intermediate goal. Addressing Arjuna as Bharatarshabha, Krshna offered to tell him the time when the yogis, departing (taking their acquired talents to projects over wide areas), prayata, do not return and when they return. (B.G. 8-23) (Vide my work, Krshnas Gita as Rajavidya where every verse of that discourse is examined from the point of view of political sociology)
Krshna impressed on Arjuna that by performing his duties, the yogi (Rajayogi, Brahmayogi and Karmayogi) attains (upaiti) the high status (paramam sthanam) of the foremost person (adyam) in order of protocol. He secures precedence. The Rajarshi who adheres to the codes laid down is recognized to be superior to the three respected cadres, Rajanyas (the power-elite), Brahmanas (the jurists) and the officials (the executive). (B.G. 8-28) Badarayana was aware of this approach as Krshna delivered most of his address in the Bhagavad-Gita in his presence and in his academy, which insisted on voluntary offering of strenuous yogic endeavour. (caranat iti cenna upalakshanarthe iti karshnarjini 3-1-9)
Thibaut translates the next formula (3-1-10) as If it be said that purposelessness (of conduct would result therefrom), we deny this on account of the dependence (of work) on that (conduct). He interprets, Conduct which the text directly mentions may be supposed to have for its fruit either a good or evil birth, according as it is enjoined or prohibited, good or evil; some fruit will have to be allowed to it in any case; for otherwise it would follow that it is purposeless. This objection is without force on account of its dependence on it.
All works have effects and purposes though the effects may not be in tune with the purposes one had in his mind when he began to perform those works. If it is posited that that there can be works or prescribed duties that fail to reach the goals aimed at and fulfill the purposes had in mind by the doer or his employer, Badarayana denies that possibility. The nature of the work done by one depends on his innate talents and nothing can be expected of one beyond what he is capable of. The new socio-political code kept this in mind while rewarding one for an achievement not expected of him or punishing one for an act not expected to be done by him. This aspect was underlined by the school of Krshna-Arjuna. (In the training of the new administrators at the academy that Krshna had taken over, he was assisted by Arjuna.) The concept of rebirth does not feature here. (Anarthakyam iti cenna tad apekshatvat B.S.3-1-10)
Thibaut translates the next statement (3-1-11) as But (carana means) nothing but good and evil works; thus Badari opines. The school of Badari however classified an act as either a good one or a bad one. It did not try to classify it on the lines suggested by the school of Krshna Arjuna, some of the students pointed out. (sukrtadushkrta eva iti tu Badari 3-1-11)
Thibaut reads the next formula (3-1-12) as Of those also who do not perform sacrifices (the ascent to the moon) is stated by scripture. The commentator drew attention to the statement said to have been made by an earlier sage of the Vedic times that those who perform sacrifices go to the moon and that the question was whether those who did not perform sacrifices also go to the moon or not. The commentator was dealing with a doubt raised about the stand of Kaushiki Upanishad. His explanation is that it is likely those who do not perform sacrifices too may go to the moon but they will not be able to enjoy there.
Badarayana did not exclude the possibility of those who were not sincere in their duties and were agnostics being admitted to the social cadre of intellectuals (chandraloka). Such agnostics were not committed to any theory of action that defined what act was a good one and reached the goal aimed at (karma) and what was a bad act that was dysfunctional to the society (vikarma). Badarayana would posit that there were acts that had no purposes, good or bad. Some would treat them as akarma. (anishta adikarinam api srutam 3-1-12)
Thibaut translates the next formula (3-1-13) as But of the others, after having enjoyed the fruits of their actions in Samyamana, ascent and descent take place; as such a course is declared (by Scripture). The concept of the path of death, yama, is not a rational one. At the stage of regulation of the conduct of a person and striking a balance between his good and bad acts and set at naught all doubts about what further course of life he is eligible to follow, social ascent may be permitted or social decline pronounced. This has been shown in the code. (samyamane tu anubhuya itaresham aroha avarohi tad gati darsanat 3-1-13)
According to the commentator, Badarayana asserts that the Smrtis also declare this. Not only the Vedas (Srutis) that prescribed the earlier code but also the new Sastras (Smrtis) prescribe such a procedure. Until the day of reckoning comes, one continues on the course he is already in. (smaranti ca 3-1-14) Thibaut reads this as The Smrtis also declare this.
The assumption of the existence of seven hells is unwarranted and is irrational. The earlier scheme of three social worlds, bhu, bhuva and sva held attainment of the status of a noble (deva) to be the highest achievement a commoner (manushya) was capable of. But now it requires him to experience all the seven social worlds, bhu, bhuva, sva, maha, jana, tapa and satya before being admitted to the highest social cadre, the academy of the jurists, Brahmaloka. (What the seven social worlds, lokas, were has been explained earlier.) (api ca sapta 3-1-15) Thibaut reads this phrase as Moreover there are seven (hells).
Thibaut translates the next epigram (3-1-16), as On account of his activity there is also no contradiction. The discussion that introduces Yama as the God of Death and Chitragupta and others as his assistants examining the conduct of the dead person and assigning to one or the other of the seven hells is unsound. Such concepts were of later origins and belong to times when the Upanishadic and late Vedic concept of seven social worlds with the commonalty, manushyaloka, at the lowest and the cadre of jurists, satyaloka, who stood by Truth as the highest and with the academy of jurists, Brahmaloka, at the top, was long forgotten.
Badarayana implies that there can be no contradiction between what one deserves and what he earns at the time of reckoning even as in trade one does not receive or pay more than what the goods sold or bought deserves. (tatra api ca tad vyaparat avirodha 3-1-16)
Thibaut translates the next formula (3-1-17) as But on (the two roads) of knowledge and works, those two being under discussion. Those who were highly educated and performed functions expected of such scholars were eligible to be admitted to the social world headed by Soma or Chandra. These would have been technocrats rather than priests by profession.
Their works were connected with transformation of raw matter into objects of utility. (All discussions on whether sinners were eligible to be admitted to Chandraloka and what would happen to them if they are rejected from that social world are off the mark.) In the later Vedic social polity, Agni was the designation of the official heading the agro-pastoral commonalty and Soma of that heading the industrial frontier society of forests and Indra that heading the city-based patriciate. (vidyakarmano iti tu prakrtatvat 3-1-17)
Thibaut translates the next epigram (3-1-18) as Not in (the case of) the third place, as it is thus perceived. Such a technocrat cannot obtain the status of an aristocrat (deva). (The discussion on the five fires and the fate of the sinner is irrelevant.) The technocrat was at the second level and was superior to the common worker. But the status of a noble was attained only by traits other than work and study. He had to be either born in an aristocratic family and nurtured as required to function as a liberal noble or been elevated to that status from the ranks of the upper strata of the commonalty of the core society.
As the commentators draw attention to Chhandogya Upanishad regarding the method by which one could rise to Chandraloka we have to be clear what this social world meant. It referred to the social world of intellectual aristocracy headed by the Vedic official, Chandra, and ranked lower than the political and cultural aristocracy headed by the official designated as Aditya. (Vide Ch.37 and 39 of this work for a critique on the counsel given to Gautama, teacher of Svetaketu, by Pravahana on the training of the social leader, Purusha.)
The interpretation based on the commentaries of the medieval times does not present a correct picture of the counsel given to Gautama by Pravahana. A brief rational outline of Pravahanas teaching has been presented earlier while attempting to explain the formula 3-1-8. (na trtiye tatha upalabdhe: 3-1-18)
Thibaut translates the next epigram (3-1-19) as It is, moreover, recorded in the (ordinary) world. The commentator notes there are, moreover, traditions, apart from the Veda, that certain persons like Drona, Dhrshtadyumna, Sita, Draupadi etc. were not born in the ordinary way from mothers. His note that without sexual intercourse between man and woman a child may be born only indicates his inability to interpret ancient Indian social structure and social relations correctly. How the aristocracy recruited new members to its fold and how an individual could move into other and higher social worlds were taught to Gautama by Pravahana of Panchala, which was noted for its Apsara culture so that the sage might brief his son and disciple, Svetaketu correctly. (smaryate api ca loke 3-1-19)
The teacher says that the process of rise and fall in social status on account of development of ones potentials to the highest level that he is capable of and his inability to stay at that level permanently and his return to lower levels may be noticed in every walk of life. It is not necessary to treat this dynamics as valid only because it had been referred to in the Vedas (Srutis) or in the Sastras (Smrtis). The commentator notes that the four levels of species are viviparous animals, oviparous animals, animals springing from heat and beings springing from germs (plants). This interpretation is not tenable.
Some scholars of the school of Upanishads contended that apart from the three social worlds, bhu, bhuva and sva, agrarian commonalty, industrial frontier society and urban patriciate, there was a fourth social world or cadre of great sages, mahaloka. (darsanat ca B.S.3-1-20) Thibaut translates this phrase as And on account of observation.
Thibaut translates the next epigram (3-1-21), as The third term comprises that which springs from heat. Some scholars held that there were only three social classes. The aristocracy included the intellectuals, according to them. They have risen to higher levels because of the innate urge in them to become equal to the governing elite. During the later Vedic times, the commonalty had three classes, the rulers, the scholars and the commonalty, Rajanyas, Vipras and Manushyas or Vis.
Later, the Vis split into two classes, Vaisyas and Shudras. The nobles (Devas) and soldiers-cum-administrators (Kshatras) of the Vedic times merged in the class of Rajanyas though some nobles still kept themselves away from other Kshatras. The Vipras were often referred to as Brahmans and there was a dispute between Rajanyas (governing elite) and Brahmans (members of the judiciary) on which of the two classes was superior to the other. This later became a dispute between Kshatriyas and Brahmans. (trutiya sabda avarodha samsokajasya B.S.3-1-21)
Thibaut translates the next formula (3-1-22) as (On the part of the souls descending from the moon) there is entering into similarity of being (with ether and so on); as this (only) is possible. Thibaut (following the commentators of the medieval times) notes that the teacher has so far explained that the souls of those who perform sacrifices etc. after having reached the moon dwell there as long their works last and then re-descend with a remainder of their works. A doubt arises whether the descending souls pass over into a state of identity with ether (akasa). This interpretation is not sound. We have to interpret the Chhandogya Upanishad correctly.
The rich villager who has performed all his duties may go to the forest to get educated by the senior citizens residing there under the jurisdiction of Soma (pitryana) or to the city to experience the ways of life of the patriciate residing there (devayana) and return to his original place. He may opt to join the administrators, kshatras, or join the company of the scholars, vipras or merge again in the commonalty, vis. (sabhavyapattir upapatte B.S.3-1-22)
Thibaut translates the next statement (3-1-33) as (The soul passes through the stages of descent) in a not very long time; on account of the special statement. It was not necessary that the trained person should perform the duties of an administrator for a long time having been taught its nuances by the devas, the governing elite, or those of teachers having been taught the values of life by the senior citizens staying in the forest.
It was not necessary that he should perform these duties for a long time even if he opted to be an administrator or a teacher. He might return to his worldly life and continue his occupation early or might even give up all his wealth and be but a landless agricultural worker. This aspect has been specially underlined by different statements in the Upanishad. The commentator misses this note when he says that up to the moment when the souls enter into rice etc. their descent is accomplished in a short time. (na aticirena viseshat 3-1-23)
Thibaut translates the statement (3-1-24) as (The descending souls enter) into (plants) animated by other (souls) as in the previous cases, on account of scriptural declaration. It is not necessary to treat this claim as a scriptural declaration. The enlightened commoner as explained in the previous statement may enter into the company of other social cadres too. There were cadres, who did not fit in any of the four social classes-- Rajanyas, Vipras, Vis and Kshudrakas. They were known as Gandharvas and were not settled socio-economic communities. He may join them instead. There were also men who had been outcast as chandalas. If that commoner failed to conduct himself properly and became guilty of moral turpitude he might be consigned to this sector. The interpretation, We do not entirely deny that vegetable existence may afford a place for enjoyment; it may do so in the case of other beings which in consequence of their unholy deeds, have become plants betrays a gross ignorance of the sociological implications of the two paths, devayana and pitryana and ascent and descent. (anya adhishttateshu purvavat abhilapat 3-1-24)
Thibaut explains the next epigram (3-1-25) as Should it be said that (sacrificial work is) unholy; we deny this on the ground of scripture. The verse (5-10-9) of Chhandogya Upanishad (referred to by the commentator) may be a later interpolation. It declares that stealing gold, drinking wine, dishonouring the teachers bed by copulating with his wife and by killing or defaming a Brahman (jurist) result in fall in social status. Also one who keeps company with those guilty of these crimes loses his status. But he who knows how to follow the instructions given through the five fires mentioned earlier and has followed them is not outcast as a sinner even though he may keep company with these guilty persons.
Pravahana, a Rajanya, was putting in a nutshell the policy of his state with respect to social laws. One becomes pure and absolved of all sins and is admitted to the cadre (loka) of those who have done meritorious deeds (punya), if he realizes the implication of this provision in the law and follows it. The Gandharvas and Apsarases were known as punya-jana, blessed people though they did not perform sacrifices and were not initiated as Dvijas. They were not to be treated as impure. The concept of sacrifice is not relevant here.
We have to at this stage keep in mind the counsel given to Arjuna by Krshna in his academy. Not only those admitted to the four classes but the sinners, that is, those who had been kept out of these four classes on moral grounds, too could board this boat of wisdom and cross the river of evil, Krshna declared. Even the outcasts were not barred access to his academy. (Bhagavad-Gita 4-36) Krshna did not approve declaring entire families and clans as outcasts for the misdeeds of some of their members. It may be recalled here that Arjuna had feared that corruption of women of the clan led to the emergence of mixed classes. Sinners had to be punished and kept at a distance.
The issue of 'untouchability' has to be examined rationally and in a cool manner. It cannot be ignored. Untouchability does not taint Hindu society only. It has affected every cultural and religious group down the ages throughout the world. Krshna did not deny the sinners right to education and work.
The very introduction of the four classes scheme threw up major social issues linked to questions of morality and ethics. Jnana-agni, the flame of wisdom, education, burns down all actions, good and bad, Krshna states. It is purificatory. Pursuit of knowledge and wisdom cannot be denied even to the sinners though the community from which they are expelled may prevent them from pursuing the vocations reserved for it. In other words, the ideal teacher will consent to teach those who have been declared as criminals or as offenders against morality. For, the very desire to be taught (the principles of right conduct, dharma) burns down the sins committed and purifies the aspirant to knowledge. (B.G. 4-37)
Krshna comes down heavily on teachers like Drona. What is purity, sanctity, Pavitram? Arjuna asks. Krshna gives his answer in the next verse. There is nothing here (in this social world of commoners) that is equal to wisdom, jnanam, in purity, sanctity, pavitram, Krshna claims. Every clan or community has its own concept and code of sanctity. Without questioning the validity of the codes in force in the other society, itara-jana, Krshna declares that the core society which had accepted the scheme of four varnas and consented to function under the aegis of the nobles, devas, should accept the orientation that pursuit of knowledge would be its most cherished occupation.
The frontier society had opted to pursue wealth and the feudal lords sought power. But the core society valued pursuit of wisdom, jnanam, and declared that all who had acquired true knowledge were pure and should enjoy immunity against coercion by others, including the state. Krshna says that he who becomes perfect by yoga finds this on his own, svayam, in himself (atmani) in course of time. (B.G. 4-38) The yoga that he commends is karmayoga of the type that leads to wisdom, jnana. If we keep this in mind we can solve this cryptogram of Badarayanas Brahmasutra. (asuddham iti cenna sabdhat 3-1-25)
The commentator translates the next epigram (3-1-26) as After that (there takes place) conjunction (of the soul) with him who performs the act of generation. The commentator interprets, The conclusion arrived at under the preceding Sutra is confirmed also by scripture stating that the souls, after having entered into plants, become beings performing the act of generation, for whoever eats the food, whoever performs the act of generation, that again his soul becomes. The concept of intercourse is introduced here.
Badarayana was dealing with the issue of what would happen to the highly educated person who had returned to his roots in the society after having got a first-hand knowledge of the culture of the nobles who resided in their secluded areas in their cities or after having been counselled by the experienced senior citizens who had retired to their forest abodes. The trained rich commoner would impart his knowledge to his sons and other villagers and thereby sow the seeds for the rise of a new culture-rich generation and would be engaged in the societal duty of uplifting one and all. (retasigyoga atha 3-1-26)
Thibaut translates the last epigram of this section as From the yoni a (new) body springs. The commentator was off the mark when he interpreted, Then, subsequently to the soul having been in conjunction with a person of generative power, generation takes place, and a body is produced in which the soul can enjoy the fruits of the remainder of works which still attaches to it. The trained commoner who has returned to his home unites with his wife to raise a new social body, a new family. He would no longer be alone and away from his home as an unattached and detached individual longing only for higher and nobler experiences.
It is not necessary that this commoner should lead the same type of life that he did before his proceeding to the forest or to the city to get trained in higher and nobler ways of life. His return and interactions with his earlier clan and community and cadre may mark the emergence of a new social cadre that is superior to his earlier one in the commonalty. In other words it may lead to formation of a new cadre intermediate in rank to the nobility and the commonalty. (Yone sariram 3-1-27)